Key Trends in Modern Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Architectures
The Unrelenting Rise of In-Vehicle Electronics
Some of these major factors include:
INCREASED USE OF ADVANCED DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS (ADAS)
ADVANCEMENTS IN ELECTRIC AND AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES
MINIATURIZATION AND COST REDUCTION
INTEGRATION OF MULTIPLE SENSORS
V2X, V2V AND 5G COMMUNICATIONS
EVOLUTION OF INFOTAINMENT AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS
Evolution of Automotive EE Architecture Approaches
The EE architecture changes will encompass three key areas of:
- Hardware architectures
- Software architectures
- Communications architectures
With the rise of more complex and sophisticated functionality and the need for low-latency, real-time responsiveness, key EE architecture challenges revolve around the diversity of functions and the increasing complexity of sensors spread throughout the vehicle that need to interact with centralized ECU controllers.
As shown below, automotive EE architectures are evolving toward greater centralization as they move from the domain architecture with Domain Control Units (DCUs) that locally manage functions such as autonomous driving domain, smart cockpit domain, body control domain, etc., toward the zonal architecture which ultimately combines all functions in powerful central computers.
Key Enabling Technologies to Support EE Architecture Evolution
Some key examples are as follows.
In helping lead the way for supporting creation of new EE architecture environments, Interplex has adopted a paradigm called “Sense, Think, Act” that acknowledges how automotive systems are evolving to be much like living organisms that need to Sense the surrounding and in cabin environment, to Think in order to make the best decisions, and to Act in real time for avoiding hazards and achieving desired results. Just as organisms have developed specialized systems that can act quickly to a wide range of stimuli, new EE architectures are moving in a similar direction.